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MLA Quick Reference Guide

Work Cited Page

7th Edition

Example of a typical MLA Works Cited page

Click on the category to find out how to cite specific resources

2008 Update: Major Changes

Italics instead of Underlining for Titles

  • Use italics in place of underlining for independently published works (books, periodicals, etc). See the examples below for how to cite different types of publications.

Medium of Publication

  • MLA now requires that all citations include documentation of the "medium" of the publication (Print, Web, Performance, Photograph, etc). Generally, the designator is the last element included in an entry, except for web resources which are followed by the date of access.

You don't need the URL Anymore

  • MLA no longer requires the URL to be included for web sources. If however the citation doesn't easily lead the reader to the source it is recommended to include a URL.

Pagination Changes

  • In past versions of MLA you would cite a periodical differently if each issue started with page 1, from one where the page numbers continued issue to issue for an entire volume. This is no longer the case. For all periodical citations include both volume and issue numbers (e.g. 115.1). Take a look at the examples included for periodicals throughout this document.

Abbreviations for Web Sources

  • When documenting web sources MLA now requires notation of the publisher or sponsor of the site. When no publisher is listed use "N.p." For web sources that do not have page numbers, indicate such in the citation using the notation of "n. pag." You are also required to indicate the date of publication which many web sources do not indicate, in these instances use "n.d." for no date.

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In-Text Citations

In MLA style the surname of the author and page number are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.

Single Author

  • List the author and page of the article

Example:
Simpson (274) absent-mindedly spilt his coffee across ...

In recent study of nuclear reactor accidents (Carlson 274) ...

Multiple Authors

  • For a work with 2-3 authors, include the names in the text of your paper or in parentheses.

Example:
(Carlson and Leonardson 352)

(Simpson, Burns, and Wiggum 245-50)

  • For works with more than four or more authors use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and page.

Example:
Smithers et al. (16) found ...

Several empty doughnut boxes were found (Flanders et al. 62) ...

Other Examples

  • Authors with same surname - S. Bouvier (32) and P. Bouvier (81) also found
  • Two or more works by the same author(s) - Past research (Frink, Hyperbolic Topology, 213)
  • Works by different authors are listed in the same parentheses and separated by a semicolon - Several studies (Carlson & Leonardson, 52; Simpson, 210)
  • Business or corporation author shortened in parentheses - Employees morale improved after the training exercise (Springfield Nuclear, 29)
  • Reference to the whole work - A final text in 1997 (Gumble)
  • Personal communication such as letter, interview, e-mail, etc. Name in text with type of communication in works cited - According to Barney Gumble ..

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Print Resources

Book

Book with one author

  • Author's name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.

Book with two or three authors

  • Authors' name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.
  • Authors' name format: [Last] of first author, [First] of first author, [First] [Last] name of second author.

Example:

Tony, Fat, and Joseph Quimby. Saving School District Funds the Legitimate Businessman Way: Or Quality- Dog or Higher. Springfield: Racket Press, 1997. Print.

Book with three or more authors

  • Author's name, et al. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.
  • Only one author name is required.

Example:

Hibbert, Julius, et al. Bedside Manner: When a Little Chuckle is Appropriate. Springfield: Springfield Hospital Press, 1993. Print.

Works with No Author or With an Anonymous Author

  • Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.
  • Start with the title and ignore any initial A, An, or The.

Example:

Who Shot Mr. Burns. Springfield: Mystery Press, 1995. Print.

Two or more books by the same author

  • Give the names in the first entry only. Thereafter, type three hyphens which stands for the names of the preceding entry.
  • First Entry Authors' name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.
  • Second Entry ---. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.

Examples:

Frink, John. Hyperbolic Topology in Action: The GLAVIN Project. Springfield: Inventive Press, 1997. Print.

---. 101 Frinkian Inventions: From the Auto Phone Dialer to Hamburger Earmuffs. Springfield: Inventive Press, 1998. Print.

Book by a Corporate Author

  • Omit any initial article (A, An, The)
  • Cite the book by the corporate author, even if the corporate author is the publisher.
  • Corporate author's name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.

Example:

Globex. First the Market then the World: Approaches to Dominating the Market and Beyond. Cypress Creek: Globex, 1999. Print.

Book with an Editor

  • Editor's name, ed. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher's name, Date of publication. Medium of publication.
  • Indicate an editor by including a comma after the name and "ed." for multiple editors use "eds."

Example:

Wiggum, Sarah, ed. When One Glass isn't Enough: Sometimes You just Need a Box of Wine. Springfield: Poppin Fresh Press, 2000. Print.

Reference Book Entry (dictionary or encyclopedia)

  • Author (if available). "Title of Article." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's name (if available). Edition. Place of publication: Publisher's name,Year. Medium of Publication.
  • If no article author is listed begin with the title.

Examples:

Lanley, Lyle. "Monorails Equal Money." Methods of Commuity Development. Ed. Emily Winthrop. 4th ed. Springfield:springfield Nuclear P, 1991. Print.

 

Simpson, Mona. "Hippie Activism." Encyclopedia of Political Movements. 4th ed. 2001. Print.

"McBain." Encyclopedia of Action Films. 3rd ed. 2002. Print.

Book Review

  • Author (of review). "Title of Review." Rev. of Title of Book being Reviewed, by Book author's Name. Name of Periodical Volume Number Date: pages. Medium of Publication.

Example:

Talbot, Chloe. "Homer's Real Odyssey." Rev. of Homer, I Hardly Knew Me, by Homer Simpson. Playdude Magazine 7 Oct. 2003: 352. Print.

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Periodical (Journal, Magazine, Newspaper)

Journal Article (Print)

  • Author's name. "Title of Article." Journal Title Volume Number. Issue Number (year of publication): inclusive page numbers. Medium of Publication.

Newspaper Article

  • Author's name. "Title of Article." Title of the newspaper date, edition: page numbers. Medium of Publication

Example:

Simpson, Lisa. "Lisa to Burns - Drop Dead: No One Man Can Control All Media Outlets." Red Dress Daily 15 Feb. 2008: A1. Print.

Magazine Article

  • Author's name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine date: page numbers. Medium of Publication.

Example:

Powell, Herb. "How the Introduction of "The Homer" Destroyed Powell Motors." Automotive Production 4 May 1996: 98-112. Print.

Advertisement

  • Name of product or company that is the subject of the advertisement. (Descriptive Label) Advertisement. Source of the Advertisement. Date Accessed. Medium of Publication.

Example:

Mr. Sparkle. Advertisement. Springfield Shopper. 27 April 1997. Print.

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Article from a Database

Journal Article

  • Author. "Title." Name of Journal Volume and Issue Numbers (Date of Publication): Inclusive Page Numbers. Name of Database. Medium of Publication. Access date.

Newspaper Article

  • Author. "Title." Publication. Date, edition (if avilable): pages. Database. Medium of Publication. Access date.

Example:

Monroe, Marvin. "Let's Shock it Out." Springfield Shopper. 2 June 1997, late ed.: B5. LexisNexis. Web. 22 Oct. 2001.

Magazine Article

  • Author. "Title." Publication. Date: pages. Database. Medium of Publication. Access date.

Example:

Flanders, Nedward. "As Noodle Scratchers Go this Is a Hum Dinger." Leftorium Monthly. 28 Sept 2006: 4-6. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Dec. 2006.

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Online Resources

Online Book (E-Book)

  • Author. Title. Publishing info (if available). Title of the Website book was found. Medium of Publication. Access Date.

Part of an Online Book (E-Book)

  • Author. "Title of Book Part." Title of Book. Publishing info (if available). Page Numbers (if available). Title of the Website book was found. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • If there has no page numbers use "n. pag."

Example:

Burns.C. Montgomery. "Hellfish Years 1939-45." Will There Ever be a Rainbow. Springfield: Nuclear Powered Press. 75-83. Documenting the Histories of World War II. Web. 4 May 2005.

Online (only) Journal

  • Author. "Title." Publication title Volume. Number (Date): pages. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • If there has no page numbers use "n. pag."

Example:

Albertson, Jeff. "Worst Episode Ever." Scholarly Springfield. 35.2 (2001): n.pag. Web. 24 Aug. 2008.

Online Magazine / Newspaper

  • Author. "Article Title." Publication title. Publisher of the site, Date of publication. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • If the publisher of the site is unavailable use "N.p."

Examples:

Burns, Charles M. "Let Them Have their TARTAR Sauce: Out of the Box Ways to Motivate Employees." Nuclear Management Weekly. Nuclear Management Group, 13 Nov. 2003. Web. 25 Nov. 2007.

Bouvier, Selma. "The Danger of Fireworks or How I Lost my Sense of Smell: The Bottlerocket Incident." Springfield Shopper.com. N.p., 2 Mar. 1990. Web. 10 Feb. 2000.

Online Film or Video

  • Title of Film. Director. Distributor, Year of publication. Web. Access Date. < URL >.
  • To indicate the roles of contributors use the abbreviations that follow. Director = Dir., Performers = Perf., Producers = Prod., Writer = Screenplay by.
  • Access date is presented in the following format day, Month, year (e.g. 2 March 2010).

 

Web Site

  • Author. Title of page. Sponsoring Organization/Publisher, Date of Publication or last update. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • If the web site has no author, begin with the title of the web site.
  • If the web site has no title, provide a brief description "Home page."
  • If sponsor/publisher of the site is unavailable use "N.p."
  • If the web site has no date of publication information, use "n.d."

Example:

Simpson, Homer. Compu-Global-Hyper-Mega-Net. Compu-Global-Hyper-Mega-Net, 1996. Web. 10 Aug. 2002.

Discussion List

  • Author. "Subject Line." List Name. Sponsor/Publisher of the Site, Date of Publication. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • When possible cite an archived version of the post for easier locating.
  • If sponsor/publisher of the site is unavailable use "N.p.".

Example:

Moleman, Hans. "Frozen No More: The not so Kwik-E-Thaw." Moleman in the Morning. KJAZZ-FM, 2 Aug. 1996. Web. 5 July 1999.

E-Mail

  • Author. "Title of message from subject line." Message to Recipient. Date. Medium of Publication.

Example:

Smithers, Waylan. "RE: Simpson, Homer." Message to Montgomery Burns. 2 June 1989. Email.

Online Images

  • Artist if Available. Title of Image. Date of Image. Title of Web Site. Medium of Publication. Access Date.
  • If the artist name is not available begin with the title.
  • If the image has no title provide a description.

Example:

Groening, Matt. Kang and Kodos, Bill and Bob. 31 Oct 1995. Treehouse of Horror VII.com. Web. 17 May 2006.

Blog Entry

  • Last Name, First Name, "Title of individual blog entry." Title of Weblog. Sponsoring/Publishing organization if available. Date posted. Medium of Publication. Date accessed.
  • If sponsor/publisher of the site is unavailable use "N.p.".

Example:

Pie, Arnie. "10 Reasons I'd Make a Better Anchor than Kent Brockman." Pie in the Sky KBBL-TV.com. 15 Feb 2008. Web. 15 July 2009.

Advertisement

  • Name of product or company that is the subject of the advertisement. (Descriptive Label) Advertisement. Source of the Advertisement. Date Accessed. Medium of Publication.

Example:

Duff Beer. Advertisement. KBBL-TV.com. 20 April 1993. Web.

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Portions of the information contained on this page was gathered from MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

If you believe anything to be incorrect in the examples or that could use clarification, contact Steve Borrelli