Library Services Outage

Most library web services (including this site)  will be unavailable Wednesday, June 1st, between 5:45 am and 7:15 am due to planned maintenance on electrical feeders on the WSU Pullman Campus. We anticipate services will return on schedule.

Until services return, you may find materials at WorldCat Discovery.


All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | date | article title | journal title | volume | issue | page numbers | database name | release number | database publisher | cited year | url | document number

Electronic Journal Article from a Database

  • If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source, include it in place of page numbers

Example of an Electronic Journal:
Skinner S. 2005. Evolution or intelligent design: the menu model of elementary science instruction. Science Educator. 32(2) 1975-2008. In Science Direct [database on the Internet]. Release 3. NY: Science Direct Publishing; 2005. 33p. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect/scienceeducator/32/2/skinner;(accessed 2008 May 4).

Multiple Authors

  • The first author's name is inverted, followed by "and" then the second author's full name
  • More than two: List first author's name inverted, use "and" before the last author's name
  • More than 10: List first 7 followed by "et al"


  • Capitalize titles sentence style, without quotation marks. Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is always capitalized


  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update
  • A year and possibly an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April)

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals
  • Place issue numbers in parentheses
  • If no volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title

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